The pro-democracy and abolitionist movement gathers at one end of town, at the home of Euripides. Men exchange speeches in the cool summer night, their woolen garments clinging to their bodies; all are in agreement: “Man’s law of nature is equality”. Euripides, who democratized tragedy by bringing the audience onto the stage says, “The name alone [of slavery] brings shame upon the slave who can be excellent in every way and truly equal to the free born man”. In his speech, Lycophron adds, “The splendor of noble birth is imaginary, and its prerogatives are based upon a mere word”.

Meanwhile, at the other end of town, the anti-democracy and pro-slavery, i.e., those opposed to progress, are gathered at Aristophones’ posh and fancy home. Aristotle and Plato carelessly mingle with other Athenians that share these anti-humanist views. Here the theory that men are biologically and morally unequal is posited. Here too, xenophobia finds herself at home; the barbarian is to the Greek as natural slave is to natural master. God has not made all men equal; some were born to be slaves!

This is a state “revolutionized”.


Men and Women, dressed in Western clothes parade across a plaza in some